Otology is a branch of medicine that studies normal and pathological anatomy and physiology of the ear (hearing and vestibular sensory systems and related structures and functions) as well as its diseases, diagnosis, and treatment.
The otologist is primarily a surgeon, but many disorders of the ear are helped with only medical treatment. The otologist sees patients who have infections, deafness, or dizziness, or people who need ear reconstruction.
Neurotology is closely related to otology but adds the training and skill to operate within the skull on the parts of the brain and nervous system related to hearing and balance. Neurotologists operate on acoustic neuromas, glomus tumors, and other conditions found deep in the skull. Neurotologists also perform cochlear implantation surgery.