Radiation Therapy With Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide Versus Radiation Therapy With Adjuvant PCV Chemotherapy in Patients With Anaplastic Glioma or Low Grade Glioma
- Clements University Hospital
Edward Pan, M.D.
Phase III Intergroup Study of Radiotherapy With Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide Versus Radiotherapy With Adjuvant PCV Chemotherapy in Patients With 1p/19q Co-deleted Anaplastic Glioma or Low Grade Glioma
Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as temozolomide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. It is not yet known whether giving radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiation with adjuvant PCV is more effective in treating anaplastic glioma or low grade glioma.
This study will be a randomized phase III for patients with newly diagnosed co-deleted 1p/19q
anaplastic glioma or high risk low grade glioma. The trial will only enroll patients with
1p/19q co-deletion. This study includes two arms as described in the "Arms" section. A
dynamic allocation procedure will be used to allocate an equal number of patients to
different arms (Arms A:B = 1:1). This procedure will balance the marginal distributions of
the stratification factors among arms. The stratification factors that will be used are
cooperative groups (EORTC vs. all North American groups), age (≤ 50 vs. > 50), performance
score (ECOG 0-1 vs. 2), and tumor grade (anaplastic glioma vs. low grade glioma).
The primary goal is to determine whether patients who receive radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) followed by adjuvant temozolomide (RT + TMZ --> TMZ) (Arm B) have a marginally better progression free survival (PFS) as compared with patients who receive radiotherapy followed by PCV chemotherapy (RT --> PCV)(Arm A).
1. Time to Progression - To determine whether patients who receive (RT + TMZ --> TMZ) have a significantly longer time to progression (clinical or radiographic progression) as compared with patients who receive radiotherapy followed by adjuvant PCV chemotherapy (RT --> PCV).
2. Correlation between exploratory biomarkers and survival - To determine whether there is a difference in survival based on t(1;19)(q10, p10) translocation status and MGMT promoter hypermethylation status.
3. Descriptive Comparisons of Additional Secondary Endpoints - To perform descriptive comparisons of additional secondary outcome endpoints, including overall survival, objective tumor response, prognostic factor analysis and quality of life.
4. Toxicity - To determine the toxicity of the treatment in each arm and perform descriptive comparisons.
5. Neurocognitive and Quality of Life (QOL) Effects - To determine the neurocognitive and QOL effects in patients treated on this protocol and correlate these results with outcome endpoints.
6. Banking of Biospecimens and Neuroimaging Studies - To store blood products (i.e., plasma, DNA and buffy coat), tumor tissue and MRI/CT images for future scientific investigations.
After completion of study treatment, patients are followed every 12 weeks for 1 year, then every 4 months for 2 years and then every 6 months until progressive disease or until the end of study participation.
Pre-Registration Inclusion Criteria:
- United States (US) and Canadian sites:
* This review is mandatory prior to registration to confirm eligibility; patients must be willing to submit tissue samples for mandatory central pathology review submission; it should be initiated as soon after surgery as possible
- Tissue must have been determined to have local 1p/9q co-deletion and IDH mutation prior to submission for central path review
- Tumor tissue must show co-deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q; for eligibility, the 1p/19q analysis results will be accepted from the local site, as determined by either a locally available or reference laboratory (for US, must be Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act [CLIA] certified); acceptable methods for determination of 1p/19q loss include fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), by genomic sequencing or methylomic analyses; US and Canadian sites must send a copy of the official report to the pathology coordinator and quality assurance specialist (QAS)
- Tumor must also show evidence of IDH mutation by immunohistochemistry or genomic analyses; this should be performed at the local site (US: performed in a CLIA certified laboratory); the site must send a copy of the official report to the pathology coordinator and QAS
Registration Inclusion Criteria:
- Newly diagnosed and =< 3 months from surgical diagnosis; patients are also eligible if they have had a prior surgical procedure > 3 months earlier for low grade glioma, as long as the patient has not received prior radiation or prior chemotherapy
- Histological evidence of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III anaplastic glioma or WHO grade II low grade glioma with locally diagnosed combined 1p/19q loss and the presence of an either IDH1 or IDH2, both as established by a local or referenced laboratory qualified for the study
* Note: mixed gliomas are eligible, regardless of the degree of astrocytic or oligodendrocytic predominance, as long as the tumor is also co-deleted for 1p and 19q
- Patients with codeleted low grade gliomas must also be considered "high risk" by exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics:
- Age >= 40 and any surgical therapy
- Age < 40 with prior and subtotal resection or biopsy (i.e., anything less than gross total resection)
- Documented growth following prior surgery (NOTE: patients with prior surgery cannot have received prior radiation, chemotherapy or targeted therapy)
- Intractable seizures
- Surgery (partial or gross total resection or biopsy) must be performed >= 2 weeks prior to registration; patient must have recovered adequately from the effects of surgery
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,500/mm^3 obtained =< 21 days prior to registration
- Platelet (PLTs) count >= 100,000/mm^3 obtained =< 21 days prior to registration
- Hemoglobin (Hgb) > 9.0 g/dL obtained =< 21 days prior to registration
- Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) obtained =< 21 days prior to registration
- Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) =< 3 x ULN obtained =< 21 days prior to registration
- Creatinine =< 1.5 x ULN obtained =< 21 days prior to registration
- Negative serum or urine pregnancy test done =< 7 days prior to registration, for women of childbearing potential only
- Willingness and ability to personally complete neurocognitive testing (without assistance) and willingness to complete the QOL testing, (either personally or with assistance)
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0, 1 or 2
- Written informed consent
- Willingness to return to enrolling institution for follow-up during the active monitoring phase (that is, the active treatment and observation portion) of the study); patients who have been formally transferred to another active and approved site participating in this study would not need to return to the enrolling institution for this purpose
- Willingness to allow the provision of tissue samples for correlative research, as long as adequate tissues are available; patients will not be excluded from participation in the study, if they are willing to allow provision of tissues for the correlative research, but there are insufficient quantities of tissue for the correlative analyses (e.g., a patient otherwise eligible and willing who had biopsy only) Willingness to allow the provision of blood samples for correlative research; patients are not excluded from participation in the study, if they are willing to provide the mandatory biospecimens for translational/correlative research, but for logistical reasons the specimens(s) were not obtainable or if the volume collected was insufficient
Registration Exclusion Criteria:
- The following categories are ineligible:
- Pregnant women
- Nursing women
- Men or women of childbearing potential who are unwilling to employ adequate contraception or contraceptive method during this study and 6 months following the completion of chemotherapy treatments
- History of prior radiation therapy or chemotherapy for glioma; note: patients who have a history of prior low grade glioma (with or without a distant history of prior surgery for that glioma), but who have never received prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy for the glioma are eligible for the study
- Co-morbid systemic illnesses or other severe concurrent disease which, in the judgment of the investigator, would make the patient inappropriate for entry into this study or interfere significantly with the proper assessment of safety and toxicity of the prescribed regimens
- Concomitant serious immunocompromised status (other than that related to concomitant steroids) that would compromise the safety of the patient on the study
- Patients known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and currently receiving retroviral therapy are not eligible; note: patients known to be HIV positive, but without clinical evidence of an immunocompromised state, are eligible for the study
- Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
- Receiving any other investigational agent that would be considered as a treatment for the primary neoplasm
- Other active malignancy within 5 years of registration; exceptions: non-melanotic skin cancer or carcinoma-in-situ of the cervix; note: if there is a history of prior malignancy, the patient is not eligible if they are receiving other specific treatment (with the exclusion of hormonal therapy or Her-2 inhibitors) for their cancer or if they have received prior total body irradiation which included the brain
- History of myocardial infarction =< 6 months, or congestive heart failure requiring use of ongoing maintenance therapy for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias
- Recent history of hepatitis infection or if the treating physician determined that the patient would be at significant risk of reactivation of hepatitis